Power output of the engine is increased with higher thermal efficiency without increasing the size of the engine.
Naturally aspirated engines : It is a term applied to engines where air charge is brought into cylinder only by the downward movement of the piston, without any external aids.
Supercharged engines : is the term used to indicate that weight of air supplied to the engine is considerably increased.
Supercharger can be any device (normally exhaust gas driven turbocharger) which increases the pressure of combustion air supply above that which is normally required.
Air Charge Ratio : This is ratio of volume of air contained in the cylinder at the the start of compression to the swept volume of the piston. For naturally aspirated engines it is about 0.85 where as for supercharged engines it is about 2.5 – 4.0.
Advantages of pressure charging :
1. Substantial increase in power for given speed and size of the engine.
2. Better power to weight ratio i.e. reduced engine weight for given output
3. Improved mechanical efficiency with reduction in specific fuel consumption
4. Reduction in cost per unit of power developed.
5. Increase in air supply has a considerable cooling effect leading to reducing the severe working conditions and improved reliability.
There are 2 types of Supercharging methods :
Pulse type and
Constant pressure type.
|Pulse Turbo-charging System with Twin entry Blower|
- THESE WAVES TRAVEL THROUGH THE MANIFOLD TO THE TURBINE NOZZLES WHERE THEY ARE CONVERTED TO KINETIC ENERGY AT HIGH VELOCITY TO ROTATE THE TURBINE BLADES.
- THIS GIVES A RAPID BUILDUP OF TURBINE SPEED WHEN AN ENGINE IS STARTED OR DURING MANOEURING.
- TO MAINTAIN THE PULSES, RAPID OPENING OF EXHAUST VALVE, EXHAUST CONNECTIONS OF LIMITED DIAMETER, NO SHARP BENDS & THE TURBOCHARGER IS FITTED CLOSE TO THE ENGINE.
- TO PREVENT BACK FLOW INTO THESE, THE EXHAUST IS SUBDIVIDED BETWEEN A NUMBER OF MANIFOLDS, EACH CONNECTED TO A SEPARATE NOZZLE BOX AT THE TURBINE.
- UPTO THREE CYLINDERS USE EACH MANIFOLD WITHOUT INTERFERENCE DEPENDING ON THE FIRING ORDER.
- DUE TO SMAL VOLUME OF EXHAUST DUCTING AND DIRECT LEADING OF EXHAUST TO TURBINE INLET THE SYSTEM DOES NOT REQUIRE ANY FORM OF SCAVENEGE ASSISTANCE AT LOW SPEEDS OR WHEN STARTING.
UTILIZES HIGH KINETIC ENERGY OF EXHAUST GASES
DOES NOT REQUIRE AUX BLOWERS AT LOW SPEEDS OR DURING STARTING OF THE ENGINE.
MORE NO OF TURBOCHARGERS NEEDED
EXHAUST PIPING IS KEPT STRAIGHT AND SMALL SO LOCATION OF TURBOCHARGER IS VERY CRITICAL
ACCURATE MATCHING OF EXHAUST REQUIRED TO PREVENT BLOWBACK.
CONSTANT PRESSURE : IN THIS SYSTEM THE EXHAUST GASES FROM EACH INDIVIDUAL CYLINDER IS LED TO A COMMON MANIFOLD OR RECEIVER WHERE THE PULSE ENERGY IN LARGELY DISSIPATED.
THE PRESSURE PULSE IS DAMPED OUT BY EXPANDING THE GAS IN THIS CHAMBER WHICH IS MAINTAINED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE.THE EXHAUST GAS FROM MANIFOLD IS LED TO TURBOCHARGER AT CONSTANT PRESSURE.
THE VOLUME OF THE MANIFOLD MUST BE LARGE ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE GAS FLOW AND PREVENT LOCALISED PRESSURE RISE.
1. STEADY PRESSURE BEFORE TURBINE,EFFICIENT OPERATION
2. BETTER AND MORE RATIONAL UTILISATION OF EXHAUST HEAT
3. COMPRESSOR CAPACITY CAN BE INCREASED AS MORE ENERGY IS AVAILABLE
4. EXHAUST PIPING IS SIMPLER
5. EXPANSION IN CYLINDER CAN BE CARRIED OUT LONGER AS NO PRESSURE PULSE IS REQURED.THIS RESULTS IN EFFECTIVE INCREASE IN STROKE SO MORE OUTPUT.
6. DUE TO EFFECTIVE SCAVENGING SFC CAN BE REDUCED
THIS SYSTEM IS SLOWER IN ITS BUILDUP OF PRESSURE WHEN STARTING, & INSUFFICIENT AIR IS AVAILABLE FOR ENGINES DURING MANOEUVRING OR OPERATING AT LOW SPEED.
TO OVERCOME THIS DIFFICULTY ENGINES HAVE ELECTRIC DRIVEN AUXILLARY BLOWER.